Region 1 - Ilocos Region
Ilocos Provinces : Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan
Total Area : 12,840 sq. km.
The Ilocos Region, also known as Region 1, is one of the smallest regions in terms of land area. It is composed of 4 provinces in Northwestern Luzon. It lies east of South China Sea, west of Cordillera Region and northwest of Central Luzon. Except for the vast plain in Pangasinan province, the region's topography consists mostly of hills and mountains which are close to the sea. There is, however, a long and narrow strip of coastal lowlands beginning from south of La Union upwards through the northern part of Ilocos Norte. Climate is dry form November to April and wet during the rest of the year.
Region 1 is occupied mostly by Ilocanos. Pangasinenses, however, are the majority group in Western Pangasinan. Other cultural groups such as the Tingguians, Ibaloys, and Dumagats are found mostly in the mountainous parts of the region.
Agriculture is the main economic activity in the region. Main products are rice, corn, tobacco, garlic, and mango. Other farm outputs include banana, root crops, and vegetables. Poultry, hog, and cattle raising are alternative sources of income. The region's long coastline has made fishing an important livelihood of many Ilocanos. In Pangasinan, many fishponds are devoted to bangus production and Dagupan Bangus has become a brand to differentiate it from the bangus varieties from other places. Coastal Plains in the Ilocos Region are planted to rice, corn and tobacco. As a favorite destination of many travelers both local and foreign, tourism is a major income earner for the region. Very few manufacturing enterprises are located in the region and is limited to production of food and feed items.
Economic factsheet of Ilocos Region, 2007
Region 2 - Cagayan Valley
Provinces : Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino
Cities : Cauayan, Santiago, Tuguegarao
Total Area : 26,838 sq. km.
The people of Region 2 are mostly Ilocanos but the original cultural groups such as the Gaddangs, Ibanags, Itawis, Yogads, and the Isnegs are still found in the region. Other cultural groups that have made their residence in the region are the Ifugaos, Bontocs, Apayaos, and Kalingas.
Due to the rich alluvial soil of the Cagayan Valley, Region 2 is a major food basket of the country. The region is a top producer of rice and corn. Other agricultural products are rice, corn, tobacco, sugarcane, coconut, and banana. Its mountains are abundant in timber. The Babuyan Channel located north of Cagayan Province is a rich fishing ground. Fishing is also a source of livelihood of the people in the eastern coastal municipalities. The southern part of the region, particularly the province of Nueva Vizcaya, is contains large reserves of minerals and mining is poised to become a major industry although much opposition to its development is coming from various sectors of the population especially the indigenous communities. There is also proven reserves of coal in the province of Isabela. One of the largest dams in Asia, Magat Dam, is found in the region providing not only electricity but water for irrigation as well. There are many other tributaries of the Cagayan River that are still awaiting development for electricity and irrigation.
Although rich in natural resources, the region has a small contribution to the national economy. In 2007, it contributed only 2%, lower than neighboring mountainous Cordillera Region which contributed 2.22%.
Economic factsheet of Cagayan Valley Region, 2007
Region 3: Central Luzon
Provinces : Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac, Zambales
Total Area : 21,470 sq. km.
Central Luzon, also known as Region III, is located north of Metro Manila and south of Ilocos and Cagayan Valley Regions. It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by South China Sea. It is made up of 6 provinces. The central plain of Luzon is found in the region and is the largest plain in the country. It is surrounded by the Sierra Madre Mountains in the east and by the Caraballo Mountains in the west. Its climate is characterized by two seasons: dry season from November to April and wet season during the rest of the year
Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Kapampangans, Pangasinenses are the major cultural groups in Central Luzon. Other groups are Aetas and Agtas.
One of the more progressive regions, Central Luzon contributed 8.3% to the national economy in 2007. Its proximity to Metro Manila has made it a catch basin to the overflow of economic activities in the metropolis. In fact, this region is a part of the so-called urban beltway that starts from Dagupan City in Pangasinan Province in the north and extends all the way to Lucena City in Quezon Province in the south. Moreover, the successful development of the two former American military bases namely Subic and Clark, into economic zones has made the region an engine of economic growth for the country. World-class infrastructure such as the Freeport of Subic, the international airport of Clark, the Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX), and the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) promise to make the region a logistics hub not only for the country but also for East Asia.
Economic factsheet of Central Luzon, 2007
Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Provinces : Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mt. Province
Total Area : 18,406.6 sq. km.
Located in the north central part of Luzon, the Cordillera Administrative Region is a landlocked area composed of six provinces: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, and Mountain Province. It is bounded on the north by the provinces of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan, on the east by Cagayan Valley, on the south by the province of Pangasinan and Nueva Vizcaya, and on the west by Ilocos Region. Terrain is mostly mountainous with small scattered valleys especially in the province of Abra. Highest peak is the 2,930 meter Mt. Pulog located in the boundary of Benguet and Nueva Vizcaya provinces..
Temperature is cool and refreshing in the upland areas but the lowland areas are warmer. November to April is dry while May to October is wet.
The cordillera Region is the least populated region with only 1.5 million people in 2007. Population density is only 78 per square kilometer as against the national population density of 258. Different cultural groups live in the region: Tingguians and Ilocanos in Abra, Kalingas and Isneys in Kalinga and Apayao, Ibalois and Kankanaeys in Benguet, Ifugaos in Ifugao, and Bontocs in Mt. province. The population of Baguio City, the largest city in the north, is a mix of various cultural groups from different parts of the country and even foreigners
Agriculture is the main economic activity in the region with upland rice, root crops, and vegetables as the main products. Mining is a major industry in the province of Benguet producing gold, silver, and copper. Except for the factories in the Baguio Export Processing Zone, there is no other large scale manufacturing industry. However, many people are engaged in cottage industries like wood carving and weaving. Tourism is an alternative source of livelihood of the people particularly in Benguet where Baguio City is located, in Ifugao where the Rice Terraces is found, and in Bontoc and Sagada, Mt.
Due to its many rivers, the region is a major source of hydroelectric power. Two of the oldest dams in the country, namely, Ambuklao and Binga Dams, are found in the region. Still, the vast hydroelectric potential of the region is largely untapped due to strong opposition from the Indigenous Peoples whose livelihood and cultural heritage would be greatly endangered by the building of dams.
Economic factsheet of Cordillera Administrative Region, 2007
Pinikpikan - a viand prepared by beating chickens in the head and wings so the blood will clot in these parts. Once dead, it is grilled in open fire, and then cut into pieces. The smoked meat is then boiled either with cabbages, chayote or unripe papaya.